(A) | ||||

Parameter | Height z-score | Weight z-score | BMI z-score | Head circumference z-score |

Unadjusted model† (n=489) | Unadjusted model† (n=491) | Unadjusted model† (n=486) | Unadjusted model† (n=493) | |

Estimate (95% CI) | Estimate (95% CI) | Estimate (95% CI) | Estimate (95% CI) | |

EP (Ref=controls)‡ | −0.83 (−1.01 to −0.64) | −0.94 (−1.15 to −0.73) | −0.78 (−1.00 to −0.56) | −1.22 (−1.43 to −1.02) |

Age at assessment§ | −0.00 (−0.01 to 0.00) |
0.06 (0.05 to 0.07) |
0.05 (0.02 to 0.07) |
0.04 (0.03 to 0.05) |

EP*age | – | – |
0.04 (0.01 to 0.07) | – |

(B) | ||||

Adjusted for sex¶ (n=489) | Adjusted for sex¶ (n=491) | Adjusted for sex¶ (n=486) | Adjusted for sex¶ (n=493) | |

Estimate (95% CI) | Estimate (95% CI) | Estimate (95% CI) | Estimate (95% CI) | |

EP (Ref=controls)‡ | −0.82 (−1.01 to −0.64) | −0.94 (−1.15 to −0.73) | −0.78 (−1.00 to −0.56) | −1.22 (−1.43 to −1.02) |

Age at assessment§ | −0.00 (−0.01 to 0.00) |
0.06 (0.05 to 0.07) |
0.05 (0.02 to 0.07) |
0.04 (0.03 to 0.05) |

EP*age | – | – |
0.04 (0.01 to 0.07) | – |

Male (Ref=female) | −0.05 (−0.23 to 0.13) | 0.02 (−0.18 to 0.23) | 0.06 (−0.14 to 0.26) | −0.00 (−0.20 to 0.20) |

*For all models, age was centred at 6 years to make intercept coefficients more meaningful.

†Variables in the model: group status (EP participants or controls), age at assessment and group*age interaction. Interactions were only shown if significant. Trajectories of height, weight and head circumference z-scores were similar in the EP and control groups. The group*age interaction was significant for BMI z-scores, indicating that the trajectory of BMI z-scores was different in the two groups.

‡Estimates represent mean differences in growth measure z-scores between EP participants and controls.

§Estimates represent estimated average changes in growth measure z-scores over time: for instance, on average, weight increased by 0.06 SD per year and head circumference increased by 0.04 SD per year.

¶Sex was further adjusted for to examine whether it would affect growth trajectories in the two groups. The group*sex interactions were insignificant (not shown), which indicates similar trajectories between females and males in both groups.

BMI, body mass index.